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Outline

Part One

  1. Section A - Basic Definitions
  2. Section B - Tropical Cyclone Names
  3. Section C - Tropical Cyclone Myths

Part Two

  1. Section D - Tropical Cyclone Winds
  2. Section E - Tropical Cyclone Records

Part Three

  1. Section F - Tropical Cyclone Forecasting
  2. Section G - Tropical Cyclone Climatology
  3. Section H - Tropical Cyclone Observation

Part Four

  1. Section I - Real-Time Information
  2. Section J - Historical Information
  3. Section K - Preparedness Information

Questions

Section A: Basic Definitions

  1. A1) What is a hurricane, typhoon, or tropical cyclone?
  2. A2) What are "Cape Verde"-type hurricanes?
  3. A3) What is a super-typhoon?
  4. A4) Where do these easterly waves come from and what causes them?
  5. A5) What is a sub-tropical cyclone?
  6. A6) How are tropical cyclones different from mid-latitude storms?
  7. A7) How are tropical cyclones different from tornadoes?
    1. A7a) Why do tropical cyclones spawn tornadoes?
    2. A7b) What percentage of tropical cyclones spawn tornadoes?
    3. A7c) What parts of a tropical cyclone are most favored for tornado formation?
    4. A7d) How long after landfall are TC tornadoes a threat?
    5. A7e) Are TC tornadoes weaker than mid-latitude tornadoes?
    6. A7f) What is the largest known outbreak of TC tornadoes?
    7. A7g) What is the deadliest single TC-spawned tornado?
    8. A7h) What is the most damaging single TC-spawned tornado?
    9. A7i) Why are TC tornadoes especially difficult to deal with?
              (A7a through A7i above are contributed by Bill McCaul.)
  8. A8) What does the acronym "CDO" in a discussion of tropical cyclones mean?
  9. A9) What is a TUTT?
  10. A10) How do tropical cyclones form?
  11. A11) What is the "eye"?  How is it formed and maintained?

Section B: Tropical Cyclone Names

  1. B1) Why are tropical cyclones named?
  2. B2) What are the tropical cyclone names through 2004?
  3. B3) What names have been retired in the Atlantic basin?
  4. B4) What is the origin of the name "hurricane"?

Section C: Tropical Cyclone Myths

  1. C1) Doesn't the low pressure in the tropical cyclone center cause the storm surge?
  2. C2) Doesn't the friction over land kill tropical cyclones?
  3. C3) Aren't big tropical cyclones also intense tropical cyclones?
  4. C4) Why don't we try to destroy tropical cyclones by: pick one or more -
        a) seeding them with silver iodide.
        b) placing a substance on the ocean surface.
        c) nuking them
        d) etc. ?
  5. C5) During a hurricane are you supposed to have the windows and doors on the storm side closed and the windows and doors on the lee side open?
  6. C6) Should I tape my windows when a hurricane threatens?

Section D: Tropical Cyclone Winds

  1. D1) How are Atlantic hurricanes ranked?
  2. D2) How are Australian tropical cyclones ranked?
  3. D3) Why do tropical cyclones' winds rotate counter-clockwise (clockwise) in the Northern (Southern) Hemisphere?
  4. D4) How do I convert from mph to knots (to m/s) and
        from inches of mercury to mb (to hPa)?
  5. D5) How does the damage that hurricanes cause increase as a function of wind speed?
  6. D6) Why are the strongest winds in a hurricane typically on the right side of the storm? 
  7. D7) How much energy does a hurricane release?

Section E: Tropical Cyclone Records

  1. E1) Which is the most intense tropical cyclone on record?
  2. E2) Which tropical cyclone intensified the fastest?
  3. E3) Which tropical cyclone has produced the highest storm surge?
  4. E4) What are the largest rainfalls associated with tropical cyclones?
  5. E5) Which are the largest and smallest tropical cyclones on record?
  6. E6) Which tropical cyclone lasted the longest?
  7. E7) Which tropical cyclones have caused the most deaths and most damage?
  8. E8) What are the average, most, and least tropical cyclones occurring in each basin?
  9. E9) What are the most and least tropical cyclones occurring in the Atlantic basin and striking the USA?
  10. E10) For the U.S., what are the 30 most intense, 30 costliest, and 30 highest death toll hurricanes on record?
  11. E11) What tropical storms and hurricanes have moved from the Atlantic to the Northeast Pacific or vice versa?

Section F: Tropical Cyclone Forecasting

  1. F1) What regions around the globe have tropical cyclones and who is responsible for forecasting there?
  2. F2) What is Prof. Gray's seasonal hurricane forecast for this year and what are the predictive factors?
  3. F3) How has Dr. Gray done in previous years of forecasting hurricanes?
  4. F4) What are those track and intensity models that the Atlantic forecasters are talking about in the tropical storm and hurricane Discussions?

Section G: Tropical Cyclone Climatology

  1. G1) When is hurricane season?
  2. G2) How does El Nino-Southern Oscillation affect tropical cyclone activity around the globe?
  3. G3) What may happen with tropical cyclone activity due to global warming?
  4. G4) Are we getting stronger and more frequent hurricanes, typhoons, and tropical cyclones in the last several years?
  5. G5) Why do tropical cyclones occur primarily in the summer and autumn?
  6. G6) What determines the movement of tropical cyclones?
  7. G7) Why doesn't the South Atlantic Ocean experience tropical cyclones?
  8. G8) Does an active June and July mean the rest of the season will be busy too?
  9. G9) Why do hurricanes hit the East coast of the U.S., but never the West coast?
  10. G10) How much lightning occurs in tropical cyclones?
  11. G11) What is the 20th century hurricane record for each U.S. coastal county?
  12. G12) What is my chance of being struck by a tropical storm or hurricane?
  13. G13) What is my chance of having a tropical storm or hurricane strike by each month?
  14. G14) What is the average number of tropical storms and hurricanes to strike my city each season?
  15. G15) What is the largest number of tropical storms and hurricanes to strike my city in one season?

Section H: Tropical Cyclone Observation

  1. H1) What is the Dvorak technique and how is it used?
  2. H2) Who are the "Hurricane Hunters" and what are they looking for?
  3. H3) What is it like to fly into a hurricane?

Section I: Real-Time Information

  1. I1) Where can I get real-time advisories for tropical cyclones?
  2. I2) Where can I get real-time tropical weather analyses and forecast fields?
  3. I3) Where can I get real-time ship and buoy data?
  4. I4) Where can I get real-time sea surface temperature data?
  5. I5) Where can I get real-time satellite pictures and satellite products?
  6. I6) Where can I get real-time radar data?
  7. I7) Where can I get real-time hurricane aircraft reconnaissance data?
  8. I8) Where can I get real-time model forecasts of tropical cyclone motion?
  9. I9) Where can I get tropical cyclone preparedness information?
  10. I10) What computer software is available for tracking tropical cyclones?

Section J : Historical Information

  1. J1) Where can I get historical data on tropical cyclones ?
  2. J2) What journals have regular articles on tropical cyclones ?
  3. J3) What books have been written about tropical cyclones ?
  4. J4) What refereed articles were written in recent years about tropical
        cyclones ?
    - (updated to include social science articles on hurricanes 1997-99)

Section K: Preparedness Information

  1. K1) What steps should I take when a hurricane watch/warning is posted?
  2. K2) What can I do to make my home/business more disaster resistant?
  3. K3) What kind of hurricane shutters are available ?

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